Tyre Damages

Appearance

Bead toe rubber is torn or cut exposing the wire or fabric.

torn
Probable Cause(s)

Poor mounting/ demounting techniques with tyre tools and/or poor lubrication, forklift damage and poor tyre handling procedures.

Tyre

If no rust on the wire is evident, repair and return to service. If wire is rusty, gouged, kinked or broken, loose or separated, contact your tyre supplier/retreader to determine repairability; otherwise, scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Review mounting/demounting procedures and tyre tools. Ensure the tyre beads are well lubricated. Also check new tyre handling procedures.

Appearance

Rough, brittle, distorted and/or discolored hard surface in the bead area.

burnedBeads
Probable Cause(s)

Excessive heat exposure caused by frequent hard braking; improperly adjusted brakes; faulty braking system; insufficient air flow around the brakes.

Tyre

Scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Determine the source of excessive heat and correct the braking condition.

Appearance

Circumferential cracks above bead flange area with cord material exposed.

reinforceChafer
Probable Cause(s)

Improper bead seating, improper rim size, overload condition, underinflation, impact or possible manufacturing condition.

Tyre

Remove from service and consult tyre manufacturer.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Ensure proper rim sizes, mounting procedures and inflation pressures are utilized.

Appearance

Rubber exhibits blistering, swelling, or spongy condition in the bead area. In later stages the bead may appear dry and brittle. Petroleum odor may be evident.

petroLubricant
Probable Cause(s)

Use of petroleum-based products such as a lubricant, i.e., oil, diesel fuel and antifreeze.

Tyre

Scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Use of proper non-petroleum-based tyre lubricants.

Appearance

Scrapes, gouges or cuts in the sidewall.

cutsSnags
Probable Cause(s)

Road hazard, curbing, equipment damage, wash rack rails, pit rails, vandalism, etc.

Tyre

If damage has not exposed ply cords, tyre may be run out on dual positions. If the cords are visible, repair the tyre if damage to the cords is within repair limits and return to service; otherwise scrap tyre.

Vehicle

Ensure the tyre does not come in contact with vehicle hardware.

Operations

If similar damage occurs on several tyre, investigate vehicle operations to determine the cause of the damage.

Appearance

Irregular shaped bulge in mid/upper sidewall area; may progress to complete separation of sidewall rubber from the casing exposing the ply cords. No repairs, breaks or punctures in the casing are evident.

sideWallSeperation
Probable Cause(s)

Loss of adhesion between the sidewall rubber and the body ply.

Tyre

Remove the tyre from service and contact your tyre manufacturer.

Vehicle

None

Operations

None

Appearance

Break in the sidewall through the casing. This condition will usually deteriorate quickly to a radial runflat appearance.

impactBreak
Probable Cause(s)

Caused by a sudden impact with a road hazard or a chuck hole. Aggravated by overinflation.

Tyre

Consult your tyre repair facility for the possibility of repair or scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Review driving and maintenance procedures.

Appearance

A vertical break through the sidewall occuring between two body ply cables, that does not break the cables.

radialSplit
Probable Cause(s)

Severe impact. This situation can occur in overinflated and/ or overloaded conditions.

Tyre

Have the tyre inspected by your tyre repair supplier to determine repairability.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Review inflation maintenance program and review driver training.

Appearance

Evidence of a puncture or damage by a foreign object through the crown area; may result in a separation.

PenetrationsAndRoadHazards
Probable Cause(s)

Road hazard or foreign object.

Tyre

Determine casing integrity. Consult your repair facility for possibility of repair. If the damage is excessive and/or a separation is evident, scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None.

Operations

None.

Appearance

Localized spot of excessive wear across the tread face showing abrasion marks from the tread sliding on the road surface; damage may extend into the casing.

brakeSkidDamage
Probable Cause(s)

Brake skid usually occurs on trailer and drive tyre. Aggravated by new brakes (high friction, not worn in), unbalanced brake system, aggressive use of brakes, driver abuse and unloaded vehicles.

Tyre

If condition does not extend below 2/32" of tread, duals can be rematched to position flat spots 180° from each other. If more severe, the tyre can be repaired or retreaded if damage is not into the belts. If skid damage is into the tyre belts, it may be possible to remove the top belt and/or rebelt the tyre; consult your retreader. If damage is too excessive, scrap tyre.

Vehicle

Check brake materials and brake balance.

Operations

Review driving procedures.

Appearance

Rough, abraded tread surface with numerous small flakes or chunks of tread removed.

chippingFlakingChunkingTread
Probable Cause(s)

Operation of tyre with over-the-road tread rubber compounds on gravel surfaces and haul roads; misapplication of the tyre to service conditions. Aggravated by high torque, over inflation and short turns, especially on drive tyre.

Tyre

Tyre with minor chipping and flaking can be returned to service. If damage extends below 2/32" retread the tyre. If steel is visible, consult your retreader for the possibility of repair and retread.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Review tyre selection.

Appearance

Tear at the base of the main tread grooves, generally at the shoulder; no tread missing.

ribTearing
Probable Cause(s)

Caused by running over curbs and rails, or by severe localized impacts, aggravated by spread axles, hot tyre and sharp turning.

Tyre

If steel is showing, consult your tyre manufacturer. If steel is not evident, retread or return to service on a dual position.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Review driving procedures.

Appearance

Localized break through the tread rubber and the casing.

impactBreaks
Probable Cause(s)

Severe, concentrated impact with a foreign object or a chuck hole. Aggravated by overinflation and high speed.

Tyre

Scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None

Operations

None

Appearance

Tearing or loss of adhesion of the inner liner material inside the bead toe area.

TearingMountDismount
Probable Cause(s)

Poor mounting/ demounting techniques or lack of lubricant.

Tyre

Repair the inner liner or scrap the tyre if damage is too excessive.

Vehicle

None.

Operations

Review tyre mounting/dismounting procedures and the use of tyre tools.

Appearance

Discoloration, blistering and/or separations of the inner liner.

runFlat
Probable Cause(s)

Continued operation after loss of inflation pressure.

Tyre

Scrap the tyre.

Vehicle

None.

Operations

None.

Appearance

Crack or break in tyre interior surface. May be accompanied by pulled or loose cords.

impactBreak
Probable Cause(s)

Sudden and excessive force applied to the tyre exterior which exceeds reinforcing material limits. May be caused by road hazard or driver abuse.

Tyre

Scrap tyre.

Vehicle

None

Operations

Review driving procedures.

Appearance

Advanced deterioration of radial tyre affecting 360° of tyre sidewall.

run flat
Probable Cause(s)

Loss of inflation pressure. Diagnosis of cause of inflation loss becomes difficult or impossible as this condition progresses.

Tyre

Scrap the tyre.

Vehicle

None.

Operations

None.